OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Ponderosa pine is adapted to frequent, small

Ponderosa pine forest are adapted to frequent fires that remove duff and prevent fuel from accumulating

Mossy maples in the Hoh Rainforest

Aspen is adapted to disturbance, without which it is replaced by Engelmann spruce or subalpine fir

Brewer spruce grows at high elevations in Siskiyou Mountains where maritime air extends inland  

Juniper woodlands grow in the most arid zones in Oregon

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Distinguished Professor of Forest Ecology (Emeritus)

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society